Project title

Evaluation of health effects from air pollution on Malaysia's urban population

Project description

For the World Bank, STELLA staff participated in a mission to evaluate health effects from air pollution (lead and particulate) on the urban population of Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Johor, and Perak). Using data on ambient concentrations of lead and particulate in these four cities and dose-response relationships developed in the United States, STELLA staff estimated the magnitude of several adverse health outcomes including: mortality, respiratory hospital admissions, emergency room visits, restricted activity days for adults, lower respiratory illness for children, asthma attacks, and chronic disease. STELLA staff evaluated the economic value associated with these health effects and their impact on Gross National Product (GNP). STELLA staff also estimated health and economic benefits that would result from reducing ambient concentrations of lead and particulate to World Health Organization (WHO) standards.