For the Singapore-based Regional Institute of Environmental Technology, STELLA staff assessed the demand for environmental infrastructure projects in 24 medium-sized urban centres (population between 90,000 and 350,000) in Vietnam. STELLA staff evaluated the development of private environmental infrastructure projects and studied ways to encourage foreign direct investment (Build Operate Transfer (BOT)) in urban and industrial wastewater and waste management systems. In particular, STELLA staff emphasised locally adapted waste recycling options of marketable products. STELLA staff also conducted a critical analysis of the type and level of development assistance that these centres had already been getting from bilateral and multilateral donors as well as from non-government organisations. Based on this assessment, STELLA staff developed a prioritised list of possible projects (including small in-the-field pilot projects with local population participation) and proposed an action plan to develop the most promising projects.